Mainland residents suffered considerable set-backs in the 1960s and 1970s due to catastrophes such as the Great Chinese Famine that resulted from the poor governance of the PRC.
For example, Filipino females are sometimes addressed by the derogatory term "Bun Mui" and Filipino males "Bun Jai" (literally Filipino sister and Filipino son, respectively). Since the transfer of sovereignty in 1997, there has been greater tension and more conflicts have risen between residents of the PRC (People's Republic of China or the "Mainland") and Hong Kong over a variety of political and socio-economical issues concerning the governance and constitutional autonomy of the territory.
The issues partly involve the oppressive policy of the PRC government and also partly the behaviours of Mainland residents when they travel to Hong Kong.
Last 3 December 2006 was the first time a drafted bill was proposed at the Legislative Council, and was expected to be passed before the end of 2008.
However, the bill was criticized for being "too conservative".
These included ethnic Chinese, Vietnamese, Thai, and foreigners living in Cambodia.
Part of this conflict stems from Chinese involvement in Cambodia before the Vietnam War. Several clashes between African and Chinese students have occurred since the arrival of Africans to Chinese universities in the 1960s.
The exclusion of Mainland Chinese migrants has also been a source of controversy, with the government claiming that they are not considered to be of a different race.
Another issue of the bill has been of language instruction in schools.
In the late 1960s, an estimated 425,000 ethnic Chinese lived in Cambodia, but by 1984, as a result of Khmer Rouge genocide and emigration, only about 61,400 Chinese remained in the country. Many African students come to China on a scholarship through the government to study at a university.
The Cham, a Muslim minority who are the descendants of migrants from the old state of Champa, were forced to adopt the Khmer language and customs. The African students were often perceived as threatening and not punctual.
Due to the great demand from mainland residents, smugglers organizations have grown rapidly.