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Also landlocked seas like the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea, have differing concentrations.

This world map shows how the salinity of the oceans changes slightly from around 32ppt (3.2%) to 40ppt (4.0%).

In red, green and blue the waters of the major oceans of the planet is shown for depths below -200 metre.

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Note that this process has also happened where large lakes dried out, laying down the above salts in the above sequence.Note that normal sea water is undersaturated with respect to all its salts, except for calcium carbonate which may occur in saturated or near-saturated state in surface waters.The main salt ions that make up 99.9% are the following: By adding the ┬Ámol in last column up, multiplied by respective valences, like: -546 468 -56.2 106.6 ends up with almost 0, suggesting that the above values are about right.A fish with a cellular salinity of 1.8% will swell in fresh water and dehydrate in salt water.

So, saltwater fish drink water copiously while excreting excess salts through their gills.

Between 20% and 1% sea salt precipitates (Na Cl) but going further, the bitter potassium and magnesium chlorides and sulfates precipitate, which is to be avoided, unless for health reasons.

In commercial salt production, the water is led through various evaporation ponds, to achieve the desired result.

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In order to understand the sea, some of its chemical properties are important.

Shallow coastal areas are 2.6-3.0% saline and estuaries 0-3%.