They are also Muslim-majority and democratic, a rare combination.Since the late nineties, both countries have made immense strides in deepening their democracies and have been presented as models for other regional Muslim countries.
Consolidation of democracy, the focus of this paper, is considered the greatest challenge for these states as threats to democracy now come not from the rival systems of organizing government, but from the inside i.e.
from defective democracies and lookalikes (Diamond, 1996; 2008).
Focus on these requisites, however, should not be construed as an assertion that these are the only requisites of democratic consolidation.
Regular elections and constitutional transfer of power The most famous of minimalist definitions of a consolidated democracy was given by the eminent scholar Samuel P. He argued that a democracy becomes consolidated when it passes the two turnover test i.e.
Both Turkey and Indonesia have, therefore, passed the most basic test of democratic consolidation.
Economic growth and development The relationship between economic factors and democracy has been studied for a long time.
Indonesia became a consolidated democracy, according to Huntington criterion, in 2004.
The first constitutional transfer of power happened in 2001 when President Megawati Sukarnoputri took over from President Abdurrahman Wahid and the second transfer of power happened when President Megawati handed the reins of government to President Yudhoyono in 2004.
Recent research on democratic development has focused more on deepening of democracy than on procedural democratic transitions.
Advanced democracies have been bedeviled by low voter turnout, declining party membership, and growth of protest movements, both from the right and left side of the political spectrum.
This paper compares and contrasts the attempts to consolidate democracy in these countries.