For men who were older or were too busy with family responsibilities, night schools were opened, such as the YMCA school in Boston that became Northeastern University.
The election of the new Conservative Party government under the prime minister, Edward Heath, in 1970 led to budget cuts under Chancellor of the Exchequer Iain Macleod (who had earlier called the idea of an Open University "blithering nonsense").However, the OU accepted its first 25,000 students in 1971, adopting a radical open admissions policy.Large corporations systematized their training programs for new employees.The National Association of Corporation Schools grew from 37 in 1913 to 146 in 1920.Only a third of the American population lived in cities of 100,000 or more population In 1920; to reach the rest, correspondence techniques had to be adopted.
Australia with its vast distances was especially active; the University of Queensland established its Department of Correspondence Studies in 1911.
In South Africa, the University of South Africa, formerly an examining and certification body, started to present distance education tuition in 1946.
The International Conference for Correspondence Education held its first meeting in 1938.
The Open University in the United Kingdom was founded by the then serving Labour Party government under the prime minister, Harold Wilson, based on the vision of Michael Young.
Planning commenced in 1965 under the Minister of State for Education, Jennie Lee, who established a model for the OU as one of widening access to the highest standards of scholarship in higher education, and set up a planning committee consisting of university vice-chancellors, educationalists and television broadcasters, chaired by Sir Peter Venables.
It has been at the forefront of developing new technologies to improve the distance learning service as well as undertaking research in other disciplines.